Tuesday, July 29, 2014

PREbiotics—Living on the Right Side of the Tract

Plain white rice is what I often crave—its sweet, earthy fragrance as it steams, soft texture and mildly sweet flavor.
There are so many varieties of white rice: arborio, jasmine, basmati, long grain, short grain, sweet sticky rice—I love them all. Yet we’ve all been told to shun these for their lack of nutrition. White rice is a whole grain that’s been polished to the remove the hull, bran and germ—bran and germ have the most nutrition. Removing the hull and bran prevents spoilage, but much nutrition is lost. A prolonged diet of mostly plain white rice will lead to a neurological disease called beriberi, which is due to a thiamine (B1) deficiency. This is well documented in countries where starvation has left people with nothing more than white rice to sustain themselves during times of war and famine.

Aside from whole grain rice, a healthier option is converted rice (parboiled rice) which is unhulled brown or yellow rice that has been soaked and dry-steamed forcing vitamins and minerals into the body of starch, after which it is polished. This is not to be confused with “enriched rice” which is polished rice treated with powdered vitamins at packaging. 

Most grains and legumes are NOT digestible by nature. They contain phytic acid, saponin and lectin— anti nutrients which prevent our digestive system from absorbing minerals and nutrition. Thus, followers of the Paleo Diet say NAY to beans and grain. But hold your horses, haven’t whole civilizations survived on rice and bean dishes for centuries? The solution is to soak dried rice or beans in water with a little salt, allowing them to slightly ferment overnight. After soaking, rinsing and cooking most of the anti nutrients are broken down.

Cheap, good eats have kept much of this world alive. But mostly they are delicious and nutritious—rice and bean dishes form a simple, complete protein. For people with celiac disease and vegetarians it’s a safe go-to meal that’s easy to make. One jazz legend even signed his letters, praising one of his favorite food: “Red Beans and Rice-ly Yours, Louis Armstrong.”

Nice and cold right out of the fridge—kimchee potato salad has both prebiotics and probiotics.

The Prebiotic Precedes a Probiotic
Kimchee is probiotically delicious!
Now enter the recent discovery of prebiotics—a substance that precedes and facilitates an environment that supports organisms. It’s a term that astronomers use to describe an environment in outer space that may potentially be the precursor of life forms.

Gastrointestinally speaking, undigested fiber compounds from plants that bypass the upper intestinal tract collect to form a substrate for probiotic fauna in the colon; bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria ferment and manufacture fatty acids which are then absorbed by the body as nutrients; this is how we metabolize vitamins K, B1 (thiamine), B6 (pyridoxine) and B2 (riboflavin) from food. In 1995, probiotic foods were first identified and named by Marcel Roberfroid, a French Professor Emeritus of pharmaceutical medicine. Prebiotics set the stage for probiotic foods—kimchee, sauerkraut, kombucha, miso, crock pickles, cultured yogurt, cheese, etcetera; they also nourish the beneficial microfauna that already inhabit our digestive tract. This complex gut-garden is the body’s microbiome.

Raw garlic is rich in prebiotic fiber.
Short-chain prebiotic fibers (oligofructose) are fermented by colonic bacteria in the [ascending] right side of the colon—long-chain prebiotic fibers (inulin) feed beneficial gut bacteria in the [descending] left side. A full-spectrum prebiotic (inulinFOS) feeds both sides of the bowel. Prebioitcs are available in foods we already eat; Jerusalem artichoke, garlic, onion, leek and asparagus when eaten raw are good sources of prebiotic-soluble fibers. Cooking will weaken the bond of fibers. Studies are ongoing as to how our internal organisms react with different prebiotics, but their activity is proven to be directly responsible for contributing to the health of our immune system.

New research has shown that resistant starch, a prebiotic carbohydrate, does not break down into glucose. We have many sources in our daily diet such as green beans, potatoes and rice—cooked and then refrigerated. Heating an cooling changes the molecular structure of carbohydrates. It’s not as bland as it sounds; think of potato salad, rice or tapioca pudding, cold soba noodles, French green bean salad, red bean mochi, and sushi. Raw bananas are a great source, so is raw potato starch—add these to a smoothie for a boost.

Resistant starch is not the new age cure-all, it’s only a smaller piece of a complicated puzzle of the body’s microbiome. People with healthy gut function usually respond positively. Meanwhile people with a compromised gut might experience bloating, cramping, diarrhea or constipation, headaches, heartburn and even malnutrition. These negative symptoms indicate a weaker microbiome—exemplified in the case of  inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease or chronic ulcerative colitis. In less severe cases, low doses of prebiotic supplements are sometimes administered on a regulated basis. One experimental treatment involves transplanting live bifidobacteria from a healthy person into the colon of a person who has a compromised lower intestinal tract. The process is very clinical, but controversial and frankly I find it a bit disturbing, so I won’t go into detail. Use your imagination and scream into your hands.

Probiotically speaking, I’ve never been a fan of brown rice, even in pudding form; brown rice pudding sticks to my... everything. I don’t like brown rice... there I said it. Cue in the screams of 1000 macro-vegans. Despite its higher nutritional value I have some difficulty digesting brown rice; it always makes me feel like I swallowed a brick. So I prefer white rice with my meals, cold or hot. Who knew that eating leftover fried rice right out of the fridge was actually a good thing? Thanks again to my brother Leo for his professional advice and expertise on pathology and anatomy... and all the butt jokes.

Kimchee fried rice made with leftover short grain rice, topped with an egg makes a lazy Sunday even more pleasant.

Friday, July 25, 2014

Recipe: Playing with a Dutch Baby

Alas the gluten-free Korean Baby is crisp, light, savory, but not as puffy as its wheat counterpart. I'm OK with that.

Round six... ding... I’ve been busy revising a few gluten-free recipes—one of them a savory baked pancake made with kimchee called the Korean Baby (above). It’s based on the Dutch Baby (shown, page bottom)—aka German Pancake, Dutch Puff or Bismark. I think it’s rather funny how most Brooklynites have never heard of a Dutch Baby, considering that Breukelen was settled by the Dutch. Much like its hearty Yorkshire Pudding cousin, a classic Dutch Baby magically puffs, rising high and lofty like a poet with a Ph.D., but quickly deflates as it cools... more or less like any poetry slam. So what makes it puff? Mainly egg protein and the gluten in wheat flour. As hot fat turns milk into steam, egg protein and gluten trap steam causing the batter to rise up and over the pan’s edge.

No rise or low rise? I've had little luck using ceramic ware; the crust never sets up properly. Metal performs much better.
I found that a well greased cast iron pan works best; the batter starts cooking once it hits the hot metal. Ceramic ramekins don’t conduct or distribute higher temperatures as well as metal; results are either hit or miss for this type of pastry, but good for baking soufflés. The Dutch Baby’s American cousin, the popover, is baked in specialized conical tins which allow the batter rise even higher forming a puffed cap as it bakes. The temperature of some ingredients is important—eggs at room temperature, milk warmed and butter melted. This ensure that the batter will mix evenly. Popovers, Dutch Babies, French crêpes and Yorkshire Pudding all basically use the same ingredients but vary by ratio of milk, fat and flour. Salt plays an important role in baking, but not just for balancing flavor. It actually strengthens gluten, making it stickier; it also helps baked goods brown evenly.

All-purpose (AP) and cake flours have the least amount of gluten ranging anywhere from 8 to10%; pastry flour contains 9 to 10% gluten. All these result in a softer pastry. Whole wheat flour has a low rise. Although it’s higher in gluten, the bran particles interfere with formation of long gluten strands. Too much fat and sugar in the batter will also prevent gluten from forming long chains—hence, the pound cakes dense body.

The gluten-free batter that I’ve been experimenting with yields only a modest rise with the help of  little baking soda. I’ve played with a few flour combinations, but after making six gluten-free versions I’ve accepted that science has dictated that it shall never puff as high. This gluten-free version may not make it into the Kimcheelicious ePUB cookbook, but it made it to my plate. Oh, poor me, eating all my baked failures... nom, nom, nom... sob. In the meantime, I’ll make another traditional Dutch Baby for dessert.

Bake a Dutch Baby
  • 3 medium eggs
  • 2/3 cup AP flour, well packed
  • 2/3 milk, warmed
  • 3 + 2 tbsp melted butter
  • 1/4 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • 1/4 tsp vanilla (optional)
  • 1/4 cup maple syrup or honey
  • 2 tsp lemon juice
  • 2 tsp powdered sugar
  • 10" cast iron skillet
  • whisk or hand mixer (lowest setting)
  • large bowl
  • small fine sieve
Eggs should be at room temperature, remove from the fridge an hour ahead or rest them in warm water for 5-10 minutes. Preheat oven to 450°F. In a cast iron skillet add 3 tbsp of butter, place in oven to melt. In a small pan, warm milk until small bubbles form at the edges, or microwave on high for 5 seconds. In a large bowl whisk milk, salt, sugar, vanilla and eggs together. Add flour 2 tbsp at a time while whisking, then add the melted butter. Mix until smooth; small lumps are fine.

Take hot skillet out of oven and add 2 tbsp of butter, coat the sides and bottom of the pan evenly. Carefully pour batter into the pan and return to the oven. Bake at 450°F for 20-25 minutes, or until the Dutch Baby puffs over the edge of the pan and browns at the top. Place skillet on a trivet to cool. Mix maple syrup or honey and lemon juice and brush top and sides. With a small fine sieve, dust with powdered sugar. Serve immediately while it’s hot.

A Breukelen Dutch Baby is delivered—pamper with maple syrup and lemon and dusted with confectioner's sugar.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

A Guam Liberation Lunch

Chicken kelaguén and kimchee over tossed salad greens and shaved Asian cucumbers is what’s for lunch today—I’m all out of tortillas. Kelaguén is Guam’s as-of-yet unofficial national dish, but that should change soon. How can you resist a spicy ceviche made with coconut and calaman line? This meal is my way of celebrating Guam’s 70th year of liberation (July 21, 1944). The generation before me survived Japanese occupation until the US liberated the Marianas Islands. Old folks don’t talk much about the war—many lives were lost, many starved as they were forced into work camps. Instead we talk about food; much like the Hobbits we talk about what we’re having for dinner while we’re eating lunch. We talk about our favorite food, when fruit is at its best, how to roast a pig, different pickles, what else works with coconut milk, what pepper would make a good hot sauce... you might say that we’re obsessed.

The colors on my plate remind me of Ypoa (Ee-pow), my village beach where many picnics and celebrations were had. The bay is bright teal blue and aqua and the sand always clean and soft; there’s a sweet, salty breeze that cools you down even at high noon. Food always brings back fond memories and emotional connection, I’m sure there’s some science behind this. The sound of city traffic and construction becomes the pounding surf and car alarms and the laughter of school children turn into sea faring birds. My favorite foods always remind me to turn off the social media and enjoy a undisturbed real-time experience. Make some Kelaguén Manok and #EatUP! Maili fan-chomocho!

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Summer in the City at the Hester Street Fair

A walk down Manhattan’s Lower East Side took me to the Hester Street Fair. This seasonal outdoor market features vendors who sell one-of-a-kind goods and specialty foods—lots to see and lots to eat. Their mission is to support a community of artists, collectors, and first time entrepreneurs and to give shoppers the joy of discovering the next “big thing.” Check out their vendors! Hester Street Fair is open until October in Seward Park, where Hester and Essex Street meet. There’s more information on their website: http://www.hesterstreetfair.com.

Say hello to Chris, he's Hester Street Fair's empresario and info-kiosk dude.

Filipino flavors are big at Hello Halo—get your sweet shaved-ice treat here.

Mook's makes Mexican Food and fusion tacos, students get 10% off.

Zhà Asian Street Food has balls—Fried Rice Balls! They sold out by the time I got there, not a ball to be found.

Aux Epices Malaysian-French Bistro will wow you. They also have a brick and mortar on Baxter Street.

An Aux Epices lady and a Deviant Chef cook side by side.
Wondernosh! this lassie sells lassi. Say hello to Shauny Lamba and her hand-crafted yogurt drinks.

Eileen Formanes sells bibingka, a sweet tapioca-coconut Pinoy pudding made with an American twist. @BabingkaEsk

Les Croquettes! Ham, chicken or mushroom—they're going fast.

Mamak Malay-Thai Street Food is all sold out. You snooze you lose... come back next week for a Thai taste.

Beads, bracelets, baubles, bangles, bags... there's no excuse to look shabby at these prices.

Here's that German couple I ran into twice on the way over, glad to see they finally found the fair.

They got ping pong at the Hester Street Fair! Put down that fork and take a swing.

No fair is complete without clever t-shirts, jumpers and togs for tots. I would be "Home Brewed" if I were a toddler.

Knoshing and shopping, there's always lots to see and eat. The original Hester Street Fair was founded in 1895.

Don't prance away! This guy is too tutu much—dance wear with flash for adults and kids at this booth.

Smile! Crochet hats and embroidered patches by Dahlia Soleil will patch up your wardrobe from summer into fall.

Embroidered patches, 1 for $5, $3 for 10—I love the turn table and old-school headphones.

I met this man when I lived on Dean Street, his company excavates old urban wells and cisterns for bottled treasure.

Fine leather by the Flying Sayre's—wallets, billfolds, belts and more

Rachel Mae has as a farm stand.

Rachel Mae has ears of corn, sun-ripened tomatoes, peaches and cherries.
Rachel Mae has fresh pressed apple cider and home-made sugar donuts.

Rachel Mae has jam, pickles and preserves and so much more. Are you hungry yet? Get yourself down to Hester Street.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

Recipe: Cultured Butter

Clabber butter is made by allow cream to ferment for a short period, resulting in the best butter on earth.

Source: Grant-Kohrs Ranch
In college I spent some time in Fort Collins, Colorado with the Enochsons, my roommates family. I went back with Hugh during winter and spring college breaks to chop firewood for next winter, clean the barn, rotate hay to prevent nitrogen fires, preparing the steer for market (aka gelding)... this included an unfortunate trip to the rendering plant in Greeley one year. Don’t get me wrong, this is a treasured moment in my life, it was the first time I’d ever seen snow. I went tobogganing, tubing, hiked around the Poudre River, went to wrestling matches in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Most of all, I learned how to milk a cow—a first for this island boy.

Mornings and evenings we collected fresh, warm milk in a pail then transferred it to a tapered milk bucket (see inset). A few tips: warm your hands before milking, use lots of bag balm, say hello to the cow real nice a sweet. After the milk cooled down (in about an hour or so), the cream rose to the top of smaller chamber where it was carefully ladled out. This was the best milk I’ve ever had—unpasteurized and whole. Mrs. Enockson made clabber (aka cultured) butter from the fresh cream. Clabber (from the Scottish) means to sour and thicken; this prevents milk from going putrid as good microbes colonize. The French call this cultured cream Crème Fraîche. Unpasteurized cream will naturally thicken as it ferments. Churning separates the buttermilk from milk fat. The result is slightly sour, rich butter with a very deep dairy flavor—it’s the best butter on earth! Mrs. Enockson made the most jaw-dropping biscuits from this butter. After refrigerating overnight, the butter was usually kept in the cupboard. Other than the wonderful flavor, I was amazed at how it kept its form without melting as store-bought butter would.

If you can get a hold of raw cream that would be ideal. Recently some farmers have won legal battles, but raw dairy in the United States is controversial and its sale is still illegal in some states. That being said, here’s my Brooklyn-boy solution using pasteurized heavy cream and a lactobacteria starter—I filtered kimchee juice though a fine sieve to make a starter. These instructions yield roughly a 3/4 pint of butter.

Clabber Butter Recipe
  • 1 pint heavy whipping cream
  • 1 tsp kimchee juice, filtered
    (you can also use whey or buttermilk as a starter, but that's not fun.)
  • 1/2 tsp salt or sugar (optional)
  • paper towel and rubber band
  • rubber spatula
  • large mixing bowl
  • hand blender
  • coffee filter and filter caddy

Open the cream spout add 1 tsp kimchee juice, close and shake. In the end you actually don’t taste any kimchee. Open the top of the carton completely and cover with a paper towel and a rubber band. Let it sit at room temperature (65-72°F) for 12 to 18 hours. As lactcobacteria colonize, the cream ferments and thickens. You can buy a clabber starter online, or you can use whey or buttermilk... but that’s no fun, is it. The point is to inoculate the cream with a living lactobacteria culture. At this point you can add a little sugar or salt if you want.

Using only one beater, set the hand mixer to it’s lowest setting and whip until the cream separates into buttermilk and butter solids (approximately five to six minutes)—avoid spatter, use a large mixing bowl. You’ll notice that the fat forms into small clumps; tilt the bowl and use a spatula gather the solids to one side and press out some of the liquid, then carefully transfer the solids to a coffee filter—use two if needed. Hang filter caddy over a bowl and allow remaining liquid to drain for 30 to 45 minutes, agitating lightly every so often to remove the liquid. Some save the buttermilk, I prefer to discard it. It’s not like the thick butter milk used for baking, it’s more akin to sour skim milk. Pack butter into a small air-tight container and refrigerate overnight.

A generous schmeer of freshly made clabber butter with jam and toasted gluten-free bread from Chatham Bakery

Cultured butter, like cheese, builds more flavor with a little age; I think it tastes best after a week of refrigeration, but who’s stopping you from digging in, right? So go forth and spread that bread, bake the flakiest biscuits and croissants, make a pound cake that will sink a boat and say “Yo man, I got me some cultured butter!’

Thursday, July 10, 2014

Blood and Kimchee at The Gluten-free EatUP!

We’ve got Gluten-free K-Mac at The Gluten-free EatUP! topped with cheese puff crumble, scallions and fine-aged kimchee—with pasta from Taste Up Foods. Meanwhile, the World Cup will be playing on Freddy's Bar's big and small screens, Germany v. Argentina. It’s a blood-sport-gluten-free day at Freddy’s Bar with sweet and savory foods for sale and FREE ice cream tasting by DF Mavens. The Gluten-Free EatUP! is NYC’s only pop-up marketplace of locally crafted, gluten-free, taste-full goodies—brought to you by Levine’s General Store and Kimcheelicious.

The Gluten-free EatUP!
Sunday July 13, 2014 1pm to 6pm
Freddy’s Bar (Backroom)
627 5th Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11215
Entrance is Free

Levine’s General Store
Savor this, Levine’s General Store has their signature Yum Pies, hand-held savory pockets—Knishka (potato-kale) and Chana (curried chickpea & rice). Bring your appetite for the finest tastiest GF Grilled Cheese or Grilled Kim-cheese, by Levine’s and Kimcheelicious on Chatham Bakery Bread served with chips! You ca purchase GF bread and kimchee and hone your skills at home.

Kimcheelicious Foods
Enjoy the tart, savory, fine-aged flavors of vegan kimchee. Our foods are gluten free and aged to perfection. Kimcheelicious has Napa Cabbage kimchee and Fermented Korean Radish in 15 oz jars and tangy sweet Ssamjang Sauce in 8 0z jars available for purchase. Enjoy it on our Mac ‘n’ Cheese or a Grilled Kim-cheese Sandwich and stop by for a FREE tasting.

Taste Up Foods
Tease your taste buds with imported Italian classic foods! Taste Up Foods imports classic cookies, bread crumbs and pasta from Italia’s finest and most advanced allergen and gluten-free facilities. Levine’s General Store will be serving up Mac ‘n’ Cheese with their wonderful fusilli with a rich blend of cheddar cheese—your cravings satisfied here.

DF Mavens
It’s a scream! The “Free Trifecta” from one of the top ice-cream experts in the world, DF Mavens will be giving away Dairy Free, Gluten Free, Ice-Cream for Free!

Polvilho Bakery
Brazil is in this house! Salve the stress of World Cup viewing with Polvilho Bakery’s puffed cassava crunchy satisfying snacks, a favorite of Brazil.  Buy a bag and watch the game!
Sans Bakery
The most awesome of Ginger Cookies and the mellowest and tastiest baked treats from market fave await you. Pre-packaged, crumbly hockey pucks be damned! Sans Bakery is the gluten-free bakery you’ve been waiting for.

Gone Pie Vegan Bakery
Sweet Vegan that’s so good you won;t believe it’s vegan! We’re lucky as ever to have Gone Pie serving up decadent baked goods and sweets and… of course, pie.

Izzy & Em’s Baked Goods
Dreamy Sweetness, welcome aboard Izzy & Em's small batch, organic, cookies. Apricot and pistachio, oatmeal and raisin—your new favorite treats are here.

I Heart Keenwah
Fortify & Energize Returning from our debut market I Heart Keenwah will be sporting their high protein, crunchy, packed with flavor and nutrition quinoa snacks.

Passing Gas: Passive CO2 Blowout Tube System

I’ve got gas! CO2 gas that is. The modified blowout system work for both first and second fermentation. This resolves a problem with unpredictable gas emission. As fermented foods produce CO2, it displaces air and oxygen. This creates an environment anaerobic that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) need to colonize. The blowout tube used in beer brewing drains gas instead of overflowing mash. Excess gas leads into closed bottle of water which absorbs CO2 and sulfides gases, turning them into a weak acid. Anyone up for some kimchee soda?